Decision making is all about making up one’s mind on the most feasible choice from among the available options. It requires a mental exercise to intellectually settle on a certain choice depending on what the situation requires. Decisions are needed when there are two very close options, when problems arise and a solution is needed, when an opportunity comes along, and whenever the need to make a choice is required.
Because every individual differs in terms of intellectual skills, the ability to make decisions also varies. Decision makers are categorized into various types. The manner of decision making is also classified into different kinds. The type of decision is usually dependent on the individual’s capacity to make one. In other cases, it also depends on the situation at hand.
What are the Different Types of Decision Making?
Below are the most common styles of decision making that individuals usually make:
a. Irreversible Decisions
From the term itself, irreversible decisions are permanent choices. Once it has been made, it becomes irrevocable and unchanged. People usually opt for irreversible decisions when there are very limited or no options available.
b. Reversible Decisions
In contrast to the irreversible type, this kind of decision is not final and may be temporary. At any point, reversible decisions can be altered or changed such as when the decision made is not right or when the option selected is a failure.
c. Delayed Decisions
It is termed as such because the decision maker sets the decision aside until the right time comes for it to be implemented. A delayed decision sometimes makes the person miss on an opportunity such as in a business situation.
d. Quick Decisions
Not everyone is able to make quick decisions, so only good decision makers arrive at instant and correct decisions easily. The long term outcome must be considered in making quick decisions.
e. Experimental Decisions
An experimental decision involves certainty and assurance of the initial results before a final decision is made. The decision maker makes sure that the preliminary outcome is positive and convincing in order to guarantee success of the decision to be taken.
f. Trial and Error Decisions
Similar to the experimental type, the decision maker tries out different course of actions until one alternative is left that seems to be convincing and positive. Making a decision through trial and error is a play-safe method before committing to something.
g. Conditional Decisions
When a decision is conditional, the person is open for other possibilities or other alternatives. In any case, when the initial decision fails, there are other options to choose from.
The Psychological Types of Decision Makers
Since every person varies in personality and manner of thinking, the manner of making decisions is also different for every individual. Experts have identified four different types of decision makers in the psychological aspect.
These types of decision makers are guided by their intuitions or gut feelings. Instead of focusing on information or details, intuitive decision makers trust their instincts more or what they believe is right. They tend to perceive things in a bigger picture.
Thinkers are detail-oriented, as opposed to the intuitive. They tend to be precise with details and logical in manner. Thinkers trust facts and information more than feelings or emotions.
Feelers are those who take interest in other people’s emotions. They do not analyze things that much and simply give in to their likes and dislikes.
Sensors, just like thinkers, are also into details and facts. They perceive things as they are and can put situations in proper context.
General Aspects of Decision Making
a. Cognitive Decision Making
This aspect considers decision making plainly as a process that requires steps and also involves factors.
b. Behavioral Decision Making
In this aspect of decision making, there are three methods used:
• Power and Authority
c. Decision about Personal Life
d. Ethical Decision Making
An ethical means in making decisions requires the five principles of morality, which are:
• Autonomy – consideration for individual decision
• Non-malfeasance – the negative impact that the decision can make
• Beneficence – a positive and advantageous effect of the decision
• Justice – the fair and just process in decision making
• Fidelity – in accordance to professional, corporate, or individual role